Archives de catégorie : d.Comparaisons


Source: Report on Pacific Studies Centers and groups in Europe, by Serge Tcherkézoff, Ecole des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS – Institute of Advanced Studies in Social Science), France  (2009).

Voir la version française

There are four centers in Europe :

Three full-blown which are, from north to south:

In Norway, at the University of Bergen (4 + …)


It is interesting to note how, in Norway (which has absolutely no historical, strategic or aid-related interest in the Pacific), external funding and institutional importance for Pacific Studies can nevertheless be reached through pursuing the role of the Pacific in the wider theoretical agendas of anthropology and related disciplines.

In Netherlands, at the University of Nijmegen


The CPAS constitutes a network of social and cultural anthropologists, legal anthropologists, development sociologists, geographers, historians, and linguists at the University of Nijmegen and at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen. At present approximately 25 senior and 14 junior scholars are affiliated with the Centre.

These research projects are initiated and carried out by staff from the Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, the Department of History, the Department of Folk Law, the Department of Human Geography and the Research Group Language and Cognition of the Max Planck Institute. The Centre is affiliated with the Nijmegen Institute for Social Cultural Research (NISCO) and the national Research School for Resource Studies for Development (CERES). In the field of Oceanic and Southeast Asian Studies it closely cooperates with the Netherlands Association for Oceanic Studies (NVOS), the Centre for Non-Western Studies (CNWS), the Centre for Asian Studies in Amsterdam (CASA), and the International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS).

The CPAS has signed a Memorandum of Understanding outlining the modalities of cooperation in the field of Pacific and Asian Studies with the Departments of Anthropology in Aarhus (Denmark) and Heidelberg (Germany). The CPAS is also represented on the board of the European Society for Oceanists since it was established at Nijmegen in 1992.

In France, at the CNRS/EHESS/Aix-Marseille Université



The CREDO is a multidisciplinary research and information centre specialised in South Pacific societies in the fields of social and cultural anthropology, history and archaeology.

There are 25 members part of three institutions: the CNRS (National scientific research centre), l’EHESS (Advanced social studies school) and the Aix-Marseille University.

The centre has set up three different activity sectors:

The first one concerns research in anthropology, history, ethno-archaeology and linguistics focused on Oceania (Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia).

The second relates to the teaching activities in the framework of the anthropology department of the Provence University (from junior to postgraduate students) and to the Master and PhD training at EHESS.

The third one refers to Documentation Centre on Oceanian societies.

The CREDO is part of the “Maison Asie-Pacifique” along with IrAsia (Asian research institute, UMR7306) and a unit combining documentation services with research enhancement.

The “Maison Asie-Pacifique” supplies the necessary tools to the members of two joint research units: the CREDO and IrAsia. The expression “Maison Asie-Pacifique” is often used to name all of the components. It represents more than 100 people (teacher-researchers and tenured associate teachers, PhDs, technician-engineer) whose attachment to a specific same structure allows them to be part of a workplace, a meeting place with a real global synergy beyond a simple worksite.

And  a fourth one, growing rapidly: In UK, at the University of Saint Andrews


The Centre for Pacific Studies at the University of St Andrews is offering two PhD fees-waiver scholarships in Social Anthropology. Focus is open but broadly defined as work on the societies of island Pacific and Melanesian regions.

There are three Research Units, or groups, or academic associations.

The largest and oldest is

In UK, at the University of East Anglia

University of East Anglia, SAINSBURY (The Sainsbury Research Unit (SRU))

It is a centre for the study of the arts of Africa, the Pacific region and the Americas, providing high quality facilities and a specialist research library for its staff, postgraduates and visiting scholars.

Two others are

In Germany, at the University of Göttingen


In Germany, there is nearly only the University of GOTTINGEN where Pacific studies are strong. Besides several teachings (W. Kempf, Elfriede Hermann, etc.) – but not organized within a Center dedicated to Pacific studies–, there is an “Association for Pacific Studies” which is housed in the University. The main concern is the economic development, on socially and environmentally acceptable terms, especially of the economically disadvantaged states of the Pacific Region.

In Austria, at the University of Vienna

In Austria, at the University of Vienna, there is an association:

Osterreichisch-sudpazifischeGesellschaft OSPG


 Source: Presentation of Asian and Pacific studies, by Olga Lomova, Institute of East Asian Studies, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic (2009). See the original text here


Asian studies in the Czech Republic date back to the second half of the 19th century. ‘Asia’ was considered to be all the countries beyond Europe, including the Middle East, South and South East Asia and the Far East. From the beginning, Indology and Sinology have been the focus of Asian Studies at Prague’s Charles University.

After 1948, with the victory of the Communist revolution, Asian studies flourished. New chairs in Sinology, Japanology, and Koreanistics were established, and Indology developed further, divided according to language (Hindi, Bengali, Tamil). As there was restricted academic freedom in other humanities, Asian studies also attracted some of the best minds in Czech humanities at the time.  Most of these developments stopped in 1968 after the suppression of the Communist reformist movement, which resulted in purges in academic institutions, restricted access to information, limited international information and in some cases, namely Sinology, direct subordination of research and teaching to the decisions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Academic research hibernated, occasionally pursued by scholars in private, and teaching was restricted to language instruction and topics relevant to politics and ideology. The only new development in this period was the creation of Mongolian and Vietnamese studies at Charles University. When academic freedom was restored in 1990, Asian studies faced a huge generation gap, accompanied by controversy about the previous Communist activities of some of the older scholars. Asian studies therefore returned to the tradition of philology-oriented studies. Asian social sciences started to develop only with the new generation of PhD degree holders.


Charles University, Faculty of Philosophy (public institution, no fees)

Celetna 13

116 36 Prague 1

Telephone: +420 224 491 850

Fax: +420 224 491 895


There are three entities in the University:

  • Institute of East Asian studies

  • Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation International Sinological Centre;html

  • Institute of South and Central Asia

Oriental Institute, Academy of Sciences, Prague (public institution)

The Institute has a department of East Asian Studies and a department of South Asian Studies.

Palacky University Olomouc, Faculty of Philosophy (public institution, no fees)

Department of Asian Studies

Masaryk University, Brno (public institution, no fees).

Centre for the Study of Religion in China and Japan

Metropolitan University, Prague (private institution, tuition fees).

Department of Asian Studies


In these universities and institutes, the following studies are proposed: literature, linguistics, early history (pre-modern and modern), philosophy, religion, anthropology, Chinese medicine, contacts with Europe, contemporary Buddhism, modern literature, Taiwan.

Depending on the university or institution, BA and MA programmes are offered, a wide variety of language classes, various country studies

Charles University in Prague is the only centre of higher learning in the Czech Republic that offers a PhD programme in Asian studies.

Annual conferences and workshops are organized. There are also bilateral exchanges, European programmes and projects supported by Asian foundations.


There are about 56 lecturers and researchers in Asian studies in the Czech Republic. A full-time teacher is required to devote 1/3 of time to teaching, 1/3 to research and 1/3 to administration.

The number of students in all the listed institutions is 450-500, with a steady rise in the numbers.


–          Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Studia Orientalia Pragensia  since 1945

–          Mongolica Pragensia since 2007

–          Archiv Orientalni since 1929 (in English, French and German)

–          Novy Orient since 1945 (in Czech)



Source: Asia-Pacific studies in Finland, by Tiina Airaksinen, University Lecturer in Asia-Pacific Studies, Asia-Pacific Studies programme University of Helsinki, Finland (2009). See the original text here



The University of Helsinki was founded in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Abo and moved in 1820 to Helsinki. It is the oldest University in Finland. The chair for Professor Linguarum Orientalium was established as soon as 1640.

Asia Pacific studies were inaugurated in 2001 at the Renvall Institute of the University of Helsinki and are more specifically oriented towards East and Southeast Asia.

The University of Turku has been offering courses on East Asia for over forty years. In 2005, a Professorship in Contemporary Chinese History was established within the Department of Contemporary History under the aegis of the Faculty of Social Sciences. Since its founding in 2006, the Centre for East Asian Studies (CEAS) has led and carried out a number of high-profile research projects. Between 2007 and 2009, the Academy of Finland awarded CEAS a 250,000 euro grant for its project on Tianjin and urban governance in China


University of Helsinki

The main fields studied are: history, societal issues, integration, international relations, development problems and contemporary cultures of the region.

After completing a Bachelor’s degree in Asia Pacific studies, students can continue towards a Master’s degree in East Asian studies. So far three students have completed their BA degrees in Asia Pacific studies.

Different seminars, forums and conferences are regularly organized for students, postgraduate students and postdoctoral scholars.

Institute for Asian and African Studies, East Asian Studies programme

Founded in 1974, the first professorship in East Asian studies was created in 1987 and became permanent in 1994.

Confucius Institute

Established in 2006, organizes languages and culture courses related to China.

University of Turku

University of Oulu

Concentrates on Japanese studies.

Open University


University of Helsinki

There are courses on history, politics, economics, anthropology and arts. The different research fields are: Modern Asian history, Asian-Western identities and interaction, Asian-Western intercultural encounters.

Modern Asian Studies in general include history, economic development and political issues.

Institute for Asian and African Studies, East Asian Studies programme

The two principle directions of research are: Classical East Asian Studies (classical languages, literatures, philosophies and fine arts and Modern East Asian Studies (modern history, economic development, socio-political issues).

Due to the limited resources of these lines of research in Finland, students specializing in more specific topics are advised to search for contacts and supervision abroad.

Teaching and research languages: Japanese, Korean, Chinese, English, Finnish, Cantonese ad Vietnamese.

University of Turku

Research areas:

  • Environmental issues and urban development in East Asia
  • Legal system and human rights in China
  • Social movements and protests in China and Japan
  • Taiwanese contemporary politics
  • Chinese labour migration
  • Chinese foreign relations

University of Oulu

Research areas:

  • American occupation in Japan
  • Missionary work in Japan
  • Japanese national identity
  • Image of Japan in the West


University of Helsinki

1-2 researchers and around 5-6 part time teachers.

Languages of teaching and research: English, Finnish and Swedish.

Institute for Asian and African Studies, East Asian Studies programme

There are two professors, three lecturers, one assistant and several special readers and part-time teachers.

About 16 Bachelors of Arts, 19 Masters of Arts and 3 Doctors of Philosophy graduate yearly from the Institute. Students can work as teachers, translators, researchers or international administrators.

University of Oulu

3 PhD thesis, 4 Licentiates and over 20 MA thesis.


In English:

  •  Leena Avonius, Damien Kingsbury (eds.): Human rights in Asia. A reassessment of the Asian values debate, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • TiinaH. Airaksinen: Love your country on Nanjing road: the British and the may fourth movement I Shanghai. Renvall Institute Publications; 19. University of Helsinki, 2005.
  • Raisa Asikainen (toim.): Perspectives on China. Papers from the Nordic association for China studies conference at the University of Helsinki, June 7-9 2005. Renvall Institute Publications; 21. University of Helsinki.
  • Olavi K. Fält, Fascism, Militarism or Japanism? The interpretation of the crisis years of 1930-1941 in the Japanese English-language press. (1985)
  • The Clash of Interests. The transformation of Japan in 1861-1881 in the eyes of the local Anglo-Saxon press. (1990)
  • Henry Oinas-Kukkonen, Tolerence, Suspicion and Hostility. Changing U.S. Attitudes toward the Japanese Communist Movement, 1944-1947. (2003)
  • Seija Jalagin (ed.), Japan – Reflections on the Eastern Mind. (1998)

In Finish:

  • Raisa Asikainen, Teemu Naarajärvi, Juha Vuori (eds.): Pekingin kevät 1989. Tiananmen ja kiinalaisen aktivismin rajat, (Spring in Pekin 1989: Tiananmen and limits of Chinese activism), Gaudeamus 2005.
  • Raisa Asikainen, Juha Vuori (eds.): Kiinan yhteiskunta muutoksessa, (Chinese society in transition), Gaudeamus 2005.


Source: Asian studies in Ireland, by Chris Connolly, University College Cork‐National University of Ireland, UCC, Ireland (2009). See the original text here



Asian studies are a very young established academic discipline in Ireland, with the first school of Asian studies launched in 2008 at University College Cork-National University of Ireland, Cork (UCC). However, research on and study of Asia go back some years, when a number of business schools initiated Japanese language teaching into their curriculum; most notably the University of Limerick’s Kemmy Business School established the Euro-Asia Centre. In 1999, the Irish Government launched its ‘Asia Strategy’ document, prioritising the development of economic and other relations with China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Viet Nam.  As part of phase II of this strategy, in 2005 the Minister for Education announced the Department of Education’s support for the establishment of two Irish institutes of Chinese studies, one in University College Dublin (UCD) and the other in University College Cork (UCC). The institute in UCC quickly grew into a full department, running four degree programmes in Chinese studies. In 2009, the department expanded its scope of enquiry to include an MA in Asian studies, with a regional focus on North East Asia, and study in either Japanese or Korean language. Other institutions in Ireland have also introduced the teaching of Asian languages, while individual academics have their own research areas that include Asia-related topics.


  • University of Ulster, University College Cork (UCC);

  • Queens University Belfast (QUB)

  • National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG)

  • University of Limerick (UL)

  • Dublin City University (DCU)

  • University College Dublin (UCD)

  • Trinity College, University of Dublin (TCUD)

  • National University of Ireland Maynooth (NUIM)

  • National College of Ireland (NCI)

Third-level education in the Republic of Ireland is public and free, although students are required to pay a registration fee of €1500 to cover student services. A grant system is available providing up to €3400, administered by county councils. The education system is based on the License, Master, Doctorate system.


There are 85 academics researching in the area of Asian studies, who conduct work on 22 different Asian countries, regions and intergovernmental bodies. China, Japan and India are the countries with the highest level of research activity. Most scholars are required to do research and teach as part of their duties, and it is a contractual obligation of all full-time academics to be ‘research active’ and publish, although there is no national system for the monitoring of this. Researchers are free to choose their own areas of research, although, of course, the Government can provide direction through preferential treatment for specific areas of research by the administration of research grants on certain topics. Private consultancy work is permitted, but must be declared. Internal research grants are limited, and most funding comes from external sources.


Language and cultural studies are the main areas of study.  East Asia is the main area of research in language and cultural studies. Politics and history are the top areas of interest in each of the four regions of Asia (South, East, Southeast and Central Asia). The languages studied in the various establishments are: Japanese, Mandarin Chinese, Korean, Malay and Indonesian.


Source: Asian Studies in Italy, by Carlo G. Cereti, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Italy (2005). See the original text here.



Asian studies in Italy focus mainly on China, Japan, India and Central Asia. Oriental studies have been practised in Italy since Imperial Rome. In 1481, Hebrew, Arabic and Chaldaic were taught in Rome’s Studium Urbis because of the importance these languages had for studying the Bible and church history.

In the Middle Ages, travellers, merchants and men of religion travelled throughout Asia to reach the “Far East”, the most famous of these being Marco Polo. Sinology in Italy is, however, most strongly associated with the work of two Jesuits: Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) and Pasquale D’Elia (1890-1963). Matteo Ricci was the first Italian Sinologist, while Pasquale D’Elia was the best Sinologist in Rome between the two World Wars and was the last “pre-modern” missionary Sinologist.

In the 1980s, Japanese and Chinese studies underwent major changes. Up to the early 1980s, most students interested in the Far East had a background in the humanities and were interested mainly in Asian culture. Towards the second half of that decade, the number of students rose from 10 to 15 a year to over 100 a year, and the fields of study expanded from language and culture to economy, history and contemporary subjects. More recently, specialized Japanese courses have been offered, such as Japanese business at the private Bocconi Univerity of Milan and the translation and interpretation course in Lecce.

Indology and Central Asian studies are less developed than Chinese and Japanese studies.


Today the three main seats of research are Naples, Rome and Venice.

 ·         L’Orientale at the University of Naples, formerly the Istituto Universitario Orientale, hosts a large department of Asian studies, covering the whole of Asia and the Islamic world.

  • The University of Rome, La Sapienza, hosts specialists in the languages, history and archaeology of Asian countries.
  • At the University of Venice, “Ca’Foscari”, the main focus is on Chinese and East Asian studies.

Several cultural institutions and private foundations have been particularly active in promoting Asian studies, including:

  • The Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente, established in 1995
  • The institute Venezia e l’Oriente of the Fondazione Giorgio Cini, founded in 1958
  • Chinese and Japanese studies:
    • Chinese language and literature: 35 researchers, including seven full-time professors (four in Venice, one each in Rome, Milan and Naples).
    • Japanese language and literature: 24 researchers, including six full-time professors (two in Naples and Venice and one each in Rome and Milan).
    • History of Eastern and South-Eastern Asia: 11 researchers, including three full-time professors (two in Naples and one in Venice).
    • Archaeology, history of art and philosophy of Eastern Asia: seven researchers, including five full-time professors (two in Naples, one each in Rome, Venice and Genoa).


Today, there are 77 permanent researchers in Chinese and Japanese studies in Italian universities.

  • Indian studies:
    • Modern languages and literature of the Indian sub-continent: 10 researchers, including three full-time professors in Rome, Venice and Naples.
    • Indology and Tibetology: 18 researchers, including eight full-time professors in Milan, Bologna, Palermo, Turin, Cagliari, Pisa, Basilicata and Rome.
    • Philosophy, religion and history of India and Central Asia: five researchers, no full-time professor.
    • Archaeology and history of the arts of India and Central Asia: nine researchers, including four full-time professors in Naples, Bologna and Rome.

A total of 42 researchers are studying India and Central Asia.


At the University of Naples, Asian studies include the whole of Asia and the Islamic world. At the University of Rome, instruction in Chinese and Japanese was followed by teaching of Persian and then of Sanskrit. In Venice, the department of Eurasian studies focuses on themes connecting Europe to Asia. The Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente runs research and cooperation programmes in many Asian countries, including China, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Yemen. It also organizes languages courses in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Arabic, Persian and Turkish.


  • East and West, founded in 1950 and published by the Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente
  • Annali dell’Istituto Univerisitario Orientale, published by the University of Naples
  • Rivista di Studi Orientali, the official journal of the department of oriental studies at the University of Rome
  • Quaderni Eurasiatici, published in Venice


Source: Asian studies in Lithuania – Audrius Beinorus, Center of Oriental Studies at Vilnius University, Lithuania (2009). See the original text



Asian studies in Lithuania date back to the 19th century, when Vilnius University was at the heart of Oriental language studies. The department of Eastern languages was founded as early as 1810, but with no one at its head. A famous Vilnius intellectual, Kazimir Kontrimas, ventured a proposition to the Governor of the Vilnius district to establish an Institute of Eastern Studies; however, for unknown reasons, the project was not accepted, and talented university students were forced to scatter around the world.

During the independence period between the two World Wars, Oriental studies in Lithuania did not get the attention and support they deserved; they survived only because of the efforts of a few devoted scholars.

In Soviet times, under the control of Moscow, Lithuanian schools of higher education were not allowed to set up institutes of Oriental studies. As a result, students were sent to Russian universities.

After 1993, with the independence of Lithuania, Asian studies enjoyed a revival. The Centre of Oriental Studies at Vilnius University focuses on studies of regions in South, East and Near-East Asia. The objectives of the Centre are to prepare specialists in Asian studies for scientific research, the development of cultural and business relations as well as to promote better understanding of Eastern cultures in Lithuania.

After receiving generous support from social partners and state institutions, a BA programme of Classical Asian Studies was added in the academic year 2000. In 2005, a new BA programme in Iranian studies and an MA programme in Contemporary Asian studies and in 2007 a BA in Turkish studies were introduced.


Centre of Oriental Studies

Vilnius University

University Street 5

LT-01513, Vilnuis

Centre for Asian Studies at the Faculty of Political Sciences and Diplomacy

Kaunas Vytautas Magnus University

Vaizganto 30, Kaunas

The Centre for Asian studies was established in 2009 by combining two existing institutions: the Asian Studies Centre and the Japanese Studies Centre.

Students are required to pay for their studies, as there are no Government grants for Asian studies; however, agreements between Lithuanian and Asian and other European universities provide various grants.

Students can go to Asian universities for part of their studies.

The educational system in based on the model: BA, MA , PhD.


Vilnius University

Centre of Oriental Studies

There are 25 full-time and part-time lecturers. The number of full-time positions depends on the number of students and the University’s budget.

Ten students are admitted every 2 years to each BA programme: Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Iranian, Arabic and Turkish studies. Every 2 years, 15 students are admitted to the MA in contemporary Asian studies.

Lecturers and researchers in Asian studies at Vilnius University are members of the Central and Eastern European Network for Indian Studies (CEENIS) and the European Network of Contemporary Academic Research on India (ENCARI).

The staff divide their time between research and teaching, with one third of their salary assigned to research.

All lecturers who hold a PhD are obliged to do research and to publish.

Kaunas Vytautas Magnus University

There are three researchers and seven lecturers for approximately 20 MA students.

At Kaunas University, teaching and research are clearly divided.

The number of scholars in Asian studies has increased regularly in recent years. Because of the low salaries, it is almost impossible to attract senior scholars from abroad for full-time positions.


Vilnius University Centre prepares qualified specialists in humanities and social Sciences. Among its educational objectives are analysis and research of cultural evolution in the major geographical regions of Asia, intercultural communication, and prospects of collaboration in Asian studies. The approved research topic for 2008–2013 is ‘Traditional Strategies of Knowledge in Asia’.

13 Asian languages are taught at the Centre: Japanese, Mandarin, Chinese, classical Chinese, Tibetan, Persian, Dari, Arabic, Turkish, Hindi, Sanskrit and Vedic.

Kaunas Vytautas Magnus University provides instruction in Japanese, Mandarin and Korean. Their main research theme is: ‘Representation (images) of East Asian countries in Europe’.




Source:  Asian studies in Portugal – State of the art, by Miguel Santos Neves, Institute of International and Strategic Studies, IEEI, Portugal (2009). See the original text here



Although the Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish permanent, regular relations with Asia in the 16th century, Asian studies are a secondary, marginalized area of academic and scientific studies in Portugal. Jesuits in Macao founded the first European University in Asia, the College of Sao Paulo, in 1594. Later, in the 18th and 19th centuries, interest in Asia decreased, partly because of the decline of the Portuguese empire in Asia. It is only during the 19th century that there was renewed interest in Chinese culture, and sinology was revived in Portugal in the early 20th century.

Structured Asian studies are a recent phenomenon in Portugal. Most of the institutions in this field were created after the late 1980s, mainly during the current decade, and the number of Portuguese institutions involved in Asian studies has been expanding since 2000. Their fields are restricted to South, Southeast and Northeast Asia. The number of institutions with permanent, structured programmes in Asian studies has increased from 3 in the 1980s to 13 in 2012. The main impetus for this development was the process of transition of Macao to the sovereignty of China that started in 1987.


There are three types of institutions in the field of Asian studies:

  • Institutions purely for research:
    • Instituto de Estudos Estratégicos e Internacionais

The Asia programme has two permanent researchers, one senior and one junior, and four senior associate researchers.

  • Asiania (Centro de Estudos Asiaticos) at the Instituto Universitário de Lisboa

A university-based research centre with two senior researchers

  • Centro de Estudos Africa – Asia at the Lisbon Technical University

A university-based economic research centre with three senior researchers

  • Institutions that combine research and education:
    • Faculdade de Letras at the Universidade de Lisboa, which offers a BA in Asian studies and has three researchers
    • Instituto de Estudo Orientais at the Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, which offers a Masters in Oriental studies and has seven researchers, doing mainly historical research
    • Centro de Linguas e Culturas Orientais at the Universidade do Minho, which offers a BA in Oriental studies, a Masters degree in Chinese studies and various PhDs on Far East Culture and literature, Chinese and Japanese linguistics, and oriental philosophies and religions
    • Instituto Portugues de Sinologia, which offers courses in Chinese language and culture and has a group of five researchers
    • Centro Cientifico e Cultural de Macau, which is a Portuguese public institution under the Ministry of Higher Education and Science
    • Instituto do Oriente of the Lisbon Technical University, which offers a postgraduate course on modern China and has nine researchers

 ·         Institutions exclusively for educational activities:

 o   Centro de Lingua e Cultura Chinesa at the Oporto Polytechnic Institute

  • Instituto Oriental at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa
  • Centro de Estudos Asiaticos at the Universidade de Aveiro
  • Universidade Aberta (Open University)

 There are at present fewer than 100 researchers, including a significant number of young people, most working on contemporary Asia.


Analysis of the content of research projects and education on Asia and the Pacific reveals that there is no structured research on the Pacific, and all research activities are restricted to Asia. There is a strong concentration on China, with research covering culture and language, economic development and foreign policy, and Chinese immigration.

The three dominant themes studied are:

  1. International relations mainly with China, state building and identity in Timor-Leste , and the transition of Macau to a Special Administrative Region of China.
  2. History, with a strong focus on research on India, followed by China and then Japan.
  3. Culture and language, focusing mainly on China, followed by Japan. Most of the available university courses address the culture, philosophy, religion and linguistics in these countries, but little research is conducted.


Today, four journals specialized in Asian affairs are published in Portugal:

 ·         Daxiyangguo – Revista Portuguesa de Estudos Asiaticos. Launched in 2002, it is a bi-annual, bilingual (Portuguese and English) journal published by the Instituto do Oriente of Lisbon Technical University.

  • Zhongguo Yanjiu – Revista de Estudos Chineses. Launched in 2007, it is an annual journal published in Portuguese by the Portuguese institution of Sinology.
  • Revista Oriente. Launched in 2001, it is published annually by the Fundaçao Oriente
  • Bulletin of Portuguese / Japanese Studies. Launched in 2000, it is a bi-annual journal published in English by the Centro de Historia de Além-Mar (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa and Universidade dos Açores).


Source: East-Asian studies in Bulgaria, by Boyka Tsigova, Department of East Asian Studies, St. Kliment Ohridski, University of Sofia, Bulgaria (2009). See the original text here



Much research has been conducted on Asia and the Pacific in Bulgaria since the beginning of the 20th century. Most studies have focused on understanding the Eastern world and to introducing various Eastern cultures (Chinese, Japanese, Indian and Arabic) into Bulgaria. In 2007, the Confucius Institute was opened in Sofia at Saint Kliment Ohridski University, which is financed and supported mainly by China. This centre for eastern language studies is the main institution for research on Asia and the Pacific in Bulgaria, with four departments and 10 majors.

The first degree programmes of the centre began in 1984 in the Faculty of Classical and Modern Philology. Since then, the centre has grown and is today the largest national unit for study and research on Asia in Bulgaria.

The department for East Asian Studies is the largest at the centre and in the Faculty of Classical and Modern Philology. It was established in 2000 and comprises programmes for Japanese, Chinese and Korean studies.


– Main institution:

Sofia University Saint Kliment Ohridski (Centre for Eastern Languages and Studies).

1504 Sophia, 15 Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd

Rector: Professor Ivan Ilchev, Dr Habil

Tel: +359 2 946 18 15

– Other institutions where Asian and Pacific studies are undertaken:

University of Veliko Turnovo

D.A. Tsenov Academy of Economics

National Academy of Art

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Various research institutes


–        Language and culture of East Asia (Japan, Korea, China), and also of India, Pakistan, Iran and Armenia. Also Caucasian, Arabic and Semitic languages and culture, and Turkish and Altaic languages.

–          Linguistics, literature, ethnology, arts, religion. Social and economic life.

–         Degrees offered at the centre:

BA, MA, and doctoral programmes.

Language courses

Asian culture courses


 –         Staff at the centre:

  • 43 full-time lecturers and approximately 73 part-time lecturers per year
  • In the department of Eastern Studies: 16 full-time lecturers 13 part-time lecturers and 6 guest lecturers.
  • In the Japanese studies programme: 6 full-time lecturers and 3 part-time staff plus 2 guest lecturers from Japan.

Total number of students: 450 in 2009-2010.

 –          Education is free at the University, except for Government fees.  Scholarships for studying abroad are also available.

–          Research is one of the responsibilities of scholars at the University.

–          Researchers who work in institutes outside the University are full-time researchers engaging mainly in scientific work. They are not required to teach, except when their scientific field requires it. Professors are responsible for the quality of the teaching; they also supervise PhD students and participate in various forms of the university administration.

–          Many students have found successful career development in the fields of science, education, translation, journalism, diplomacy, public administration and private business.


–          Bulgarian Oriental Studies, Centre for Eastern Languages and Studies.

–          Series Oriens, Centre for Eastern Languages and Studies.

–          Yearbook of Saint Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia, Faculty of Classical and Modern Philology.

–          Contrastive linguistics, Faculty of Classical and Modern Philology and Faculty of Slavic Studies.

Annuaire de l’Univerité de Sofia Saint Kliment Ohridski, Faculty of History.






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Source: Asian studies in Belgium – Pierre-Henry de Bruyn, University of La Rochelle, France, and Paul Servais, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium (2009). See the original text here



Oriental studies were first taught and studied in Leuven, Belgium, as early as the beginning of the 16th century, in a period when the countries now called Holland and Belgium still formed a loose entity called the Low Countries, which were part of the Habsburg empire of Spain, ruled by Charles V.

In 1517, the College of the Three Languages (Collegium Trilingue) was founded by Hieronymus van Busleyden, canon of Mechelen, a humanist, diplomat and friend of Thomas More and Erasmus of Rotterdam. At the initiative of the latter, Busleyden bequeathed his fortune to a foundation for the establishment in Leuven of an institute for the study of Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Alhough the Collegium Trilingue was formally independent of the Faculty of Theology, its main purpose was to provide theology students with a solid knowledge of Latin, Greek and Hebrew as an indispensable means for a correct interpretation of the Bible.

During the period leading up to the First World War, Indian, Iranian and many more languages were added to the curriculum of both the Faculty of Theology and the Faculty of Letters. However, until the mid-1930s, the courses remained scattered over two faculties and did not lead to a regular degree in Oriental Studies as such. Some felt that the time had come to bring lecturers and courses together under one and the same roof. As the chancellor stated in his official announcement of the establishment of an Orientalist Institute in 1936: “During the first three quarters of the nineteenth century, the different branches of Oriental Studies were mainly considered ancillary sciences, in the service of either scriptural and theological studies or classical philology. However, these disciplines have long since become independent, and we should have started uniting forces and efforts many years ago. This unification has now become a fact in the Orientalist Institute of Leuven, which will have as its programme the philological instruction of all ancient languages and critical instruction of the history of the ancient peoples of the Orient.”

Far Eastern Studies in the broad sense took a step forward due to the monumental contribution of Professor Etienne Lamotte. This scholar, appointed professor in 1932, distinguished himself in the study of Buddhism. Equally at home in Sanskrit, Pali and Tibetan as in classical Chinese, he poured out impressive translations and studies of Buddhist scriptures, thus building himself and the institute a world reputation. The 1960s were a decade of upheaval and tremendous change for the University. In 1966-1967, the University was divided into two entities: a Dutch-speaking university, which remained in the historic town of Leuven, and a French-speaking university, which moved to a new site in the French-speaking part of Belgium and was renamed Louvain-la-Neuve. The Orientalist Institute was divided along the same linguistic lines. As most of the professors concerned with the Far East were French-speaking, the Far Eastern section moved to Louvain-la-Neuve, where Lamotte continued to teach. The Orientalist Institute expanded its programme to a 4-year curriculum in 1974. In 1978, it gained the status of a full department within the Faculty of Letters and started a 4-year programme of Far Eastern Studies. When China opened its doors in 1979, a programme of Sinology was established with Professor U. Libbrecht (retired since 1993) at its head. Since then, the programme has witnessed considerable expansion. At present, apart from the general programme—consisting of courses in Chinese language (both modern and classical), history and philosophy—students are offered the opportunity to specialise in either culture and history or economy. The classes are taught mainly in Dutch.


  • Université Catholique de Louvain
  • University of Leuven
  • The Belgian Institute of Chinese Studies established in 1929 following an initiative from China. During its 80 years of existence, the Institute has developed three types of activities: a library, educational activities such as courses and conferences, and publication of Buddhist and Chinese texts.
  • The Belgian Society for Indology, in which the University of Ghent plays a leading role with its department of languages and cultures of South and East Asia.
  • The Centre for Japanese studies of the University of Ghent
  •  The Centre for International Cooperation and Development Studies of the Free University of Brussels


 ·      After Monseigneur Lamotte died, Chinese studies at the Université Catholique de Louvain almost disappeared, but recently this field has entered a progressive reconstruction process, not so much in the field of Classical Sinology but rather in studies of contemporary areas.

At the University of Leuven, three fields of research are currently represented:

  • Classical Chinese philosophy in the Zhou and Han dynasties
  • Cultural exchanges between China and the West since the 17th century
  • Modern Chinese (including applied research on teaching Chinese)

In the other institutions, the subjects under study include: Sanskrit and Tocharian culture, Jain philosophy, early Buddhism, the status of religion in modern times with a focus on Buddhism in modern East Asia and modern Japan, intellectual history and philosophy in modern Japan and China.

Asian languages such as Prakrits, Hindi, classical Chinese and Japanese are also taught.


The only two sinologists in teaching positions in a French-speaking university in Belgium are: Eric Florence at the State University of Liege, a specialist on issues of migration, who contributed to the foundation of a Confucius institute in Liege in 2006; and Françoise Lauwaert at the Free University of Brussels, who gives two courses on China (historical anthropology of the Chinese world and contemporary Asia) and courses in classical laguage. She is also attached to the Institut des Hautes Etudes de Belgique.

The situation in the French- and the Flemish-speaking parts of the country are thus different, even though both parts, with very different financial and institutional environments, have leading personalities who are striving to improve the state of Asian studies.

Jean-Michel Sers : La coopération entre l’Union européenne et l’Association des nations du Sud-Est asiatique (ANASE) dans le domaine de la recherche et de l’innovation

La coopération en matière de recherche et d’innovation entre l’UE et l’Association des nations du Sud-Est asiatique (ANASE) s’est considérablement développée en termes de participations dans les programmes-cadres de recherche et de développement technologique de l’UE depuis le lancement d’un dialogue politique sur la science et la technologie entre le Comité Science et Technologie (ASEAN-COST) et la Commission européenne en 2008[1]. Le dialogue politique a été lancé dans le but d’échanger des idées et les meilleures pratiques respectives sur les défis d’intérêt commun tels que la santé, la sécurité alimentaire et le changement climatique. La mise en place du dialogue s’est également fondée sur une participation croissante des centres de recherche et des universités de l’ANASE dans les programmes-cadres de l’UE depuis le début des années 2000, et la volonté de l’UE de devenir un partenaire de l’ANASE au même titre que d’autres pays partenaires traditionnels de l’ANASE dans la région asiatique (Chine, Corée et Japon notamment).

L’ANASE regroupe dix pays et occupe une position clé dans la région Asie-Pacifique au niveau politique et économique. L’association a été créée le 8 Août 1967 à Bangkok, en Thaïlande, à l’initiative de cinq nations fondatrices : l’Indonésie, la Malaisie, les Philippines, Singapour et la Thaïlande. Le Brunei Darussalam a rejoint le groupe en 1984 suivi du Vietnam, du Laos, du Myanmar et du Cambodge entre 1995 et 1999. Avec plus de 600 millions d’habitants, les membres de l’ANASE ont une population de taille similaire à l’Europe et un PIB cumulé de 1.450 € milliards (2010). La construction d’un développement socio-économique durable fondé sur la connaissance, qui s’appuie aussi sur une très riche mosaïque de cultures, est considérée comme une des voies les plus prometteuses pour remédier aux disparités économiques encore importantes qui existent entre et au sein des membres de l’ASEAN.

L’ANASE et l’UE ont des visions politiques et des objectifs similaires sur de nombreux points dans le domaine de la recherche : participer à la résolution des défis mondiaux et soutenir l’innovation pour une économie compétitive, durable et inclusive. Alors que l’UE est sur le point d’adopter son futur programme-cadre pour la recherche et l’innovation, «Horizon 2020», l’ANASE a prolongé son Plan d’action pour la Science et la Technologie (APAST) jusqu’en 2015. Le Plan d’action inclut des Programmes Phares (Flagship Programmes) couvrant six thèmes (la prévention des catastrophes ; la promotion des biocarburants ;  la promotion des systèmes d’exploitation libres en matière informatique, la sécurité et la sûreté alimentaire, le changement climatique et la santé), que l’ASEAN s’efforcent de mettre en œuvre, principalement à travers des partenariats internationaux. La décision politique de l’ANASE la plus récente en matière de recherche et d’innovation a été l’adoption de l’Initiative de Krabi (Krabi initiative)[2] sur “l’avenir de la science, de la technologie et de l’innovation pour une zone ANASE compétitive, durable et inclusive d’ici 2015 et au-delà” en décembre 2010. Cette déclaration vise à réaffirmer le rôle crucial de la recherche et de l’innovation comme levier de compétitivité dans la région. Elle comprend des recommandations dans huit domaines, y compris la construction d’une société numérique au niveau régional, la promotion des technologies vertes, la sécurité alimentaire et énergétique, la gestion des ressources en eau, la biodiversité et l’apprentissage scientifique continu.

Dans le cadre du dialogue politique instauré depuis 2008 les responsables de l’ANASE et de l’UE ont identifié un certain nombre de domaines de recherche d’intérêt commun comme les technologies de l’information et de la communication, les biotechnologies, la sécurité alimentaire, la santé, les énergies renouvelables et les sciences marines. La coopération, déjà bien établie dans ces domaines, a ensuite été développée dans d’autres domaines, y compris les sciences des matériaux et les sciences socio-économiques, qui sont aussi des domaines prioritaires de l’ANASE et du 7ème  Programme-Cadre pour la Recherche et le Développement Technologique (7ème PCRDT 2007-2013).

Le 7ème PCRDT a créé un cadre propice à la coopération à travers la mise en œuvre d’actions ciblées vers l’Asie, et les partenaires de l’ANASE en particulier, ainsi que le financement d’activités ayant permis de mieux faire connaitre le programme-cadre européen de soutien à la recherche dans cette région du monde, notamment :

1. Les programmes spécifiques du 7ème PCRDT sur l’agro-alimentaire, l’environnement (y compris le changement climatique), les technologies de la société de l’information, les sciences socio-économiques et humaines,  les nanosciences et des nanotechnologies qui ont permis de financer des actions de recherche collaboratives ciblées entre des équipes européennes et du sud-est asiatique offert la possibilité de développer une coopération mutuellement bénéfique. La participation de l’ASEAN dans le 7ème PCRDT est aujourd’hui significative puisqu’elle elle enregistre 758 demandes de financement parmi lesquelles 190 ont été retenues (soit 21% de l’ensemble des participations asiatiques en 7ème PCRDT). Les principaux domaines de coopération UE-ANASE sont les technologies de l’environnement, de l’information et de la communication, de la santé, de l’agriculture et des biotechnologies.

2. Le dialogue politique UE-ANASE est accompagné par le projet SEA-EU-NET[3], aussi financé par le 7ème PCRDT, qui a mis en place un large éventail d’actions intersectorielles visant à renforcer la coopération entre les milieux universitaires, industriels et gouvernementaux des deux régions UE et ANASE. Le déploiement de points de contact 7ème PCRDT dans sept des dix pays de l’ASEAN a contribué au rapprochement des communautés scientifiques des deux régions. Un autre projet, le projet SEACOOP[4], a également mis en œuvre des actions de sensibilisation dans le domaine des technologies de l’information et de la communication. Les actions et les recommandations résultant de ces deux projets ont été intégrées dans le dialogue politique UE-ASASE en science et technologie.

La coopération entre l’Union européenne et l’ANASE dans le domaine de la recherche et de l’innovation sont complémentaires d’autres activités de coopération initiées par l’UE dans le cadre de sa politique extérieure. Ces activités de coopération sont mises en œuvre au niveau bilatéral (par exemple la coopération scientifique est une priorité de la coopération entre l’UE et la Thaïlande), régional et thématique (notamment environnement et la gestion durable des ressources naturelles y compris l’énergie, la sécurité alimentaire et d’autres).  L’instrument de soutien aux dialogues régionaux UE-ASEAN non commerciaux notamment, mieux connu sous le sigle ‘READI’ (2011-2015)[5], a financé en 2012 des activités de renforcement des capacités scientifiques,  par exemple des actions de soutien à la mobilité des décideurs politiques dans le domaine des sciences[6].

Favoriser la coopération stratégique avec les pays tiers ainsi que des coopérations bi-régionales avec des groupements de pays structurés tels que l’ANASE constituera un angle essentiel de la coopération scientifique de l’UE dans le cadre du futur programme de recherche et d’innovation Horizon 20206. À ce titre L’ANASE est considérée par l’UE comme un bloc émergent de première importance en Asie. La célébration de l’année de la science, de la technologie et de l’innovation 2012 entre l’UE et l’ANASE  marque le début d’une nouvelle ère des relations ASEAN-UE visant à améliorer le processus commun d’identification des priorités de recherche, la mobilisation et la diversification  d’instruments permettant de mettre en œuvre ces priorités, y compris les mécanismes existant au niveau des États, et enfin le développement de nouvelles activités conjointes dans le domaine de l’innovation.

Jean-Michel Sers est responsable de la coopération internationale entre l’UE et les pays de l’Asie du Sud à la DG recherche de la commission européenne.

[6]COMMUNICATION DE LA COMMISSION AU PARLEMENT EUROPÉEN, AU CONSEIL, AU COMITÉ ÉCONOMIQUE ET SOCIAL EUROPÉEN ET AU COMITÉ DES RÉGIONS ‘Renforcement et ciblage de la coopération internationale de l’Union européenne dans la recherche et l’innovation: une approche stratégique’, 14 Septembre 2012.


Pour citer ce billet : SERS, Jean-Michel, « La coopération entre l’Union européenne et l’Association des nations du Sud-Est asiatique (ANASE) dans le domaine de la recherche et de l’innovation », carnet RESAP-Livre blanc des recherches sur l’Asie et le Pacifique, 9 décembre 2012. [En ligne :]